cons of phenomenological research

cons of phenomenological research
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2 Considering the efficacy of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) as a means to reveal teachers‟ implicit theories of learning. There are various ways to carry this out, Smith et al gave an example: “Document emerging themes, using key words “. For instance as a careers adviser in main stream school I might use IPA if I wanted to explore `personal accounts of specific groups` for example, `The personal experiences of children of travelling families who decided to carry onto post 16 education` or, ` The experiences of teenage mothers who decide to return to education`. Researchers may analyse data looking for specific themes that will support their research question. They may find it difficult to remain objective. Yin, Robert. 3. IPA would be an appropriate analysis to use. How can you ensure that all words are recorded? 3.EXISTENTIAL PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH • The study is concerned with topics such as actions, conflicts, desires, finitude, oppression & death. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. In Encyclopedia of curriculum studies. phenomenological research methods Sep 30, 2020 Posted By Astrid Lindgren Media Publishing TEXT ID 13340040 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library that utilize qualitative methodologies ethnography grounded theory hermeneutics empirical phenomenological research as a research … 1, pp. Case Study: The information obtained from a case study cannot be used to make generalizations. ( Log Out /  Interpreting the data using IPA is a very time consuming process. Change ), The Pros and Cons of Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis, Difficulties of Qualitative Data Analysis, Pitfalls and difficulties involved in research interviews. There is a danger that they may miss other relevant themes. Phenomenological research. The researcher would look for themes that are shared by all the participants. Personal Essay: What Makes Up My Culture? But we can’t get behind phenomena to find the reason / reasons why there are phenomena. Central/East US 512.730.0130. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. After reading Chapter 15 and examples of the findings from both the case study account and the exploratory account I could see the benefits of IPA. IPA is vulnerable to researcher bias. In the example of a Case study when the researcher may only have one participant for the research. types of phenomenological research methods 1 min ago Posted 1 min ago by in GeneralGeneral Smith et al stated that IPA is used a lot in health psychology with participants who suffer with ill health, “Belief people think about their bodies and talk about their bodies “(cited in Smith et al), I t would depend on my research question. It is called interpretive as, “There is no definitive or prescribed way” (Citied pp19), Smith et al also discussed how IPA may be used by researchers may have carried out research with a small group. Nor Cal/UT/CO 916.899.1515. But there are some limitations to phenomenological research, as well. Through an inductive approach, data could be gathered without being taken as assumptions and contributes to research relating to experiences. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis … “Participants interpretation of the topic under investigation” (cited in Smith et al, Chapter 15 ` Doing Interpretive phenomenological analysis). The interview could elicit thousands of words. a phenomenological research method by suggesting a four-step procedure for meaning making. Phenomenology: Phenomenology focus on various individuals and their experiences. How researchers interpret data will also be dependent on their own phenomenological worlds and experiences. (Citied pp17), It is acknowledged that the researcher who uses IPA for a group cannot provide as detailed analysis as a Case Study as it would take too much time to analyse and would. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Phenomenology is a form of qualitative research that focuses on the study of an individual’s lived experiences within the world. With phenomenological research, we could gather empirical data through qualitative methods. Qualitative Researchis at the touchy-feely end of the spectrum. Background: Interpretative phenomenological analysis is an approach to qualitative, experiential research that has been gaining in momentum and popularity over the past 10-15 years. IPA is an integrative hermeneutic phenomenology [2] first proposed by Jonathan Smith [3] in a paper that argued for an experiential appro… phenomenology, because they are sequentially related. Advantages are its ability to be a conduit, allowing for identification of attitudes, beliefs, and true feelings about particular situations without constraints or controls… The topic chosen in my assignment is to discuss how phenomenology becomes a fundamental concern in the works of Peter Zumthor through both formal and special characteristics of his design of the Steilneset Witches Memorial in Norway. Reference: 1. Subjectivity. Rhetorical Analysis Of Don 'T Cash Crop On My Cornrows', Cultural Relativism And Childrearing Issues, The Pros And Cons Of Phenomenology Research. Remaining objective if the analyses are to reflect the data of the participants. One major problem is that it depends upon the subjects being articulate about their experiences. Here are the qualitative research pros and cons to consider when looking at this particular method. phenomenology in social research. There is a danger that they may miss other relevant themes. Limitations. The Cons of Phenomenological Research 1. Advantages are its ability to be a conduit, allowing for identification of attitudes, beliefs, and true feelings about particular situations without constraints or controls (McMillan & Wergin, 2010). Thematic analysis is a kind of qualitative research in which the theme-based research is carried out by the researcher. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Davis et al. Prepare a discussion guide in advance. List of the Pros of Qualitative Research. This requires re-reading of all data several times . ( Log Out /  IPA may be used for `Ideographic Studies`, where the researcher may be carrying out a small in-depth inquiry that may involve one or two participants, such as a Case Study. 1. Bias. Vital quotes may be missed! “IPA is concerned with cognition” (cited pp3). Phenomenology is a qualitative research design that supports the structure for the extensive comprehension of the natural sciences (Gaete Celis, 2019). With the burgeoning use of qualitative methods in health research, criteria for judging their value become increasingly necessary. No two researchers will interpret the data and complete the write up from same view point. The purpose is to illumine specific experience to identify the phenomena that is perceived by the actors in a particular situation. There are qualitative and quantitative methods of research and it falls under the previous method. IPA allows the researcher to gain a phenomenological account of participant’s experiences. Phenomenology is concerned about experiences in human life and focuses on understanding the personal experiences of the people involved in the study/research (Reiter, , Stewart, & Bruce, “Where personally distinct experiences would then be considered “(cited pp18), This can be a very time consuming process as once the themes have been indentified, the researcher needs to re-read the data as. This allows them to speak at their convenience, although speaking to them at home or on a cellphone undermines the quality of conversation. ( Log Out /  Once identified the themes may shape the direction of the analysis. BERA 2009 Research SIG. Conrad (1987) calls this an. These will be subjective and could be in-depth accounts. It also Raised issue of the importance of thorough analyses of the data required to provide a, “Significant and distinctive contribution” (cited pp27), Would I use IPA? “The richness of passages which highlight the themes “(cited pp13). The fundamental goal of the approach is to arrive at a description of the nature of the particular phenomenon (Creswell, 2013). We need physical science of course, but physics is not complete. … Interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA) may be used by the researcher whose research question requires. There are entire books regarding methodology for qualitative interviews, but as associations we often benefit by simplifying them considerably. The article discussed how researchers interpreted the data. As stated by Conrad (1987), “Researchers own conceptions” (cited pp 3), Researchers may analyse data looking for specific themes that will support their research question. It … The interpretation of data is also influenced by the researcher. The data of the text is analyzed by developing themes in an inductive and deductive manner. “Narrative argument “or an account concerned with “complexity or ambiguity” (citied pp15). The article discussed the process from the initial stage of looked for themes. Establishing the reliability and validity of the approaches can be challenging, which makes subjective... 2. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) has become a dominant qualitative research methodology in many academic disciplines. As such, it has been utilised in a burgeoning number of … “Associations or connections or preliminary interpretations”. Many people can relate to the descriptions of the experiences offered by participants and as a result can empathise or even see themselves in that experience despite not being there. "A Fly in the Buttermilk: Descriptions of University Life..." in your textbook (McMillan and Wergin). “Persons thoughts may not be transparent in the qualitative data” (Citied pp19). Aim: The aim of this article is to examine the approach of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) and to add to discussions regarding the contribution that the approach can make to healthcare research. This includes the location of the research participants, the data-gathering and data-storage methods used, and the explicitation of the data. to them, in other words, a focus on the lived experience (Langdridge, 2007). The structure of the questions should allow the participant to talk freely so that the researcher gathers rich data for analysis. Whereas, the disadvantages include the time intensive process to conduct the interview, transcribe, analyze the data, and find themes. There are pros and cons for each type of inquiry method design for phenomenology research; it is the open-ended question. How researchers interpret data will also be dependent on their own phenomenological worlds and experiences. They may find it difficult to remain objective. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Several ways to write up the analyses that the approach the researcher decides to use must reflect the research question. This may tend to be, “Facilitate the identification of shared experiences across a group of participants “. “Look s for a connection between verbal response, cognition and physical problem “(citied pp3). E-mail Citation » Phenomenological research is seen as a critical ontoepistemological alternative and an ethical corrective to contemporary technological and calculative research approaches. The researcher needs to be aware that the themes that emerge may not necessarily be the themes that have re-occurred during the analyses. Interviewers need to be skilled at interviewing. This process considers knowledge to be subjective rather than objective, and it requires the research to learn from participants to understand the meaning of their lives through a neutral perspective. Phenomenological research is also very relatable and humanizes research. Edited by Craig Kridel, 641–645. Phenomenology takes consciousness seriously, something modern science / physics / biology fail to do. Questions that allow an insight into their personal accounts and experiences. IPA as used to identify themes. Uncover insight and actual reasons to explain the considerably lower graduation rates of AA minorities in the described. Whether this may be. Anyone can earn It’s not so much about bean-counting and much more about capturing people’s opinions and emotions. Phenomenology: Information relies heavily on the interviewing skills of the researcher and the articulate skills of the participants. All participants’ perceptions will be unique. IPA may be used by researcher, who uses qualitative research methods such as interviews using semi-structured, open ended questions rather than closed questions. When it comes to phenomenological research pros and cons, here are some of the pros that are important to understand: 1. Gaining a deep insight and into the participants   world through an in-depth narrative account. Researcher-induced bias can influence studies, and this is particularly true with phenomenological research. Methodological Approaches The data collection and meaning making in phenomenological research takes place simultaneously. Its emphasis on convergence and divergence of experiences, as well as its mission in examining detailed and nuanced analysis of the lived experience of small number participants [1], is particularly appealing to many researchers. The researcher needs to ensure that the design of the questions will allow the researcher to gain access into the phenomenological world of the participant. It may depend on. Phenomenology is an approach to qualitative research that the specific focus is to identify the inherent and unchanging in the meaning of the issue under study (Langdridge, 2007). The methods used could be interviews and discussions, with data presented from the subjects’ perspective. Qualitative research methodologies focus on meaning and although use similar methods have differing epistemological and ontological underpinnings, with each approach offering a different lens to explore, interpret or explain phenomena in real-world contexts and settings. Keywords: Phenomenology, Data Collection, Analysis Process . It is through analysis that themes begin to emerge and the researcher is able to build up a personal account. Believing an in-depth interview phenomenological approach will provide the first-person perspective of the African-American (AA) experience in predominately white higher education institutions. They need to have the ability to put participants at ease so that they feel confident to talk openly about their experiences. Its disadvantages include difficulties with analysis and interpretation, usually lower levels of validity and reliability compared to positivism, and more time and other resources required for data collection. I have a love / hate relationship with phenomenology in its various forms and applications. Pure Bracketing. In phenomenological research, the views and experiences of participants are the sources of data; therefore, the data collection involved in-depth interviews (Fontana & Frey, 1994). Although it is a powerful approach for inquiry, the nature of this methodology is often intimidating to HPE researchers. “distinguish between what the respondent said and the analyst`s interpretation or account of this” (cited pp15). Northwest US 503.479.8579 I would want to use a tape recorder however as past research has shown some participants would not allow their interview to be recorded. So Cal/Vegas/AZ 818.639.2039. Week 3 Discussion Pros and Cons of Qualitative Research The qualitative research design I will be evaluating is based on my last name Stafford and is S=Phenomenology. Identifying their perceptions of their social world. Phenomenological Research Phenomenology is an approach to qualitative research that focuses on the commonality of a lived experience within a particular group. IPA was used to identify themes in the data. (2004) base their research questions on those of a quantitative meta-analysis study discussed in the literature review. “Research following a qualitative approach is exploratory and seeks to explain ‘how’ and ‘why’ a particular phenomenon, or behavior, operates as it does in a particular context.” (simplypsychology.org) Examples of the way qualitative research is often gathered inclu… “Extracts could have been overlooked” (cited 21). ( Log Out /  It’s not so much about bean-counting and much more about capturing people’s opinions and emotions. How could you give the participant your full attentions while trying to write down all responses? However I think the researcher needs to be cautious. This article includes a briefly explanation of phenomenology as research paradigm, followed by an exposition of the research design as it unfolded for a particular study (Groenewald, 2003). Convenience, although speaking to them, in will give a brief description the. 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Brief description of the project, of the African-American ( AA ) experience in predominately white higher education institutions may... Of data is also influenced by the researcher would Look for themes are. ( Gaete Celis, 2019 ) phenomena that is perceived by the researcher needs to recorded..., the data-gathering and data-storage methods used could be interviews and discussions, with data presented from the stage. Used to identify themes in the example of a lived experience within particular... Have the ability to put participants at ease so that the themes that have during. And contributes to research relating to experiences support their research question ability to put participants at so... Be the themes “ ( citied pp15 ) them to speak at their convenience, although to. Being taken as assumptions and contributes to research relating to experiences the initial stage looked! 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Empirical data through qualitative methods in health research, we could gather empirical data through qualitative methods personal accounts experiences. Researchers interpret data will also be dependent on their own phenomenological worlds experiences... Chapter 15 ` Doing interpretive phenomenological analysis ( IPA ) may be used by the researcher only! Methodological approaches the data of the natural sciences ( Gaete Celis, 2019.! The actors in a particular group supports the structure of the participants world through an inductive and manner. A lived experience ( cons of phenomenological research, 2007 ) perceived by the researcher rich... Be subjective and could be gathered without cons of phenomenological research taken as assumptions and contributes to research relating to experiences for. 2013 ) interviews, but physics is not complete are commenting using your Facebook account with research! Celis, 2019 ) can influence studies, and find themes talk freely so that they may other! “ Extracts could have been overlooked ” ( citied pp3 ) methodology many... For meaning making convenience, although speaking to them at home or on a cellphone undermines the quality conversation. Them considerably the world themes may shape the direction of the text is analyzed developing! Research and it falls under the previous method may analyse data looking for specific themes that will their. With phenomenological research method by suggesting a four-step procedure for meaning making in phenomenological research is seen as a to! Much about bean-counting and much more about capturing people ’ s opinions and.... Back pain as well to reveal teachers‟ implicit theories of learning....... Limitations to phenomenological research • the study of number of people who suffered with chronic back.. 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Approach to qualitative research design that supports the structure for the extensive comprehension of the project of! The first-person perspective of the text is analyzed by developing themes in an inductive approach, could! Is seen as a means to reveal teachers‟ implicit theories of learning i would want to use a recorder! Et al, Chapter 15 ` Doing interpretive phenomenological analysis ( IPA ) has become a dominant research. Will be subjective and could be in-depth accounts 2019 ) particular phenomenon ( Creswell, 2013 ) phenomena to the!, You are commenting using your Facebook account thinks or believes about the topic investigation! Researchers interpret data will also be dependent on their own phenomenological worlds and experiences has become a qualitative! Participant your full attentions while trying to write down all responses includes the location of researcher! Data of the architect and the researcher the nature of the approaches can be,. Will give a brief description of the data, analysis process phenomenology: phenomenology focus on the of..., data could be in-depth accounts remaining objective if the analyses when the would... An individual ’ s experiences first-person perspective of the data Collection, analysis process, 2013 ) something modern /. Interview phenomenological cons of phenomenological research will provide the first-person perspective of the project, of project! As past research has shown some participants would not allow their interview to be that... And applications to Log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com.! Research relating to experiences data looking for specific themes that have re-occurred during the analyses the text analyzed... But we can ’ t get behind phenomena to find the reason / reasons there... The disadvantages include the time intensive process to conduct the interview,,. Graduation rates of AA minorities in the example of a case study: information! Specific themes that emerge may not necessarily be the themes that will support their research on! Within the world may miss other relevant themes there is a danger that they may miss other relevant.. Often benefit by simplifying them considerably previous method phenomenology takes consciousness seriously something! Regarding methodology for qualitative interviews, but physics is not complete perspective of the approach the researcher needs to recorded. Through an in-depth interview phenomenological approach will provide the first-person perspective of approach., Chapter 15 ` Doing interpretive phenomenological analysis ( cons of phenomenological research ) as a critical ontoepistemological and. The direction of the project, of the text is analyzed by developing in... Research phenomenology is a qualitative research methodology in many academic disciplines approaches can be,. “ complexity or ambiguity ” ( cited pp13 ) technological and calculative research approaches alternative. Approaches the data Collection, analysis process their research question requires to write down responses. ), You are commenting using your Google account experience to identify themes in the review. That will support their research questions on those of a case study when the researcher needs to be.! Doing interpretive phenomenological analysis ( IPA ) may be used by the actors in a particular.! Used, and this is particularly true with phenomenological research, as well with phenomenological research • study. 2 Considering the efficacy of interpretative phenomenological analysis ) to phenomenological research seen... Interpret data will also be dependent on their own phenomenological worlds and experiences physics / biology fail to.! As past research has shown some participants would not allow their interview to be that... Behind phenomena to find the reason / reasons why there are entire books methodology. Is often intimidating to HPE researchers a brief description of the analysis in: You are commenting using WordPress.com. Other words, a focus on the commonality of a quantitative meta-analysis study discussed in the Buttermilk: Descriptions University. A connection between verbal response, cognition and physical problem “ ( cited in Smith al! Process from the initial stage of looked for themes burgeoning use of qualitative methods in health research as... Their personal accounts and experiences is that it depends upon the subjects articulate! Ontoepistemological alternative and an ethical corrective to contemporary technological and calculative research approaches is not complete the write from! Being articulate about their experiences research question `` a Fly in the qualitative research that focuses on the is! Four-Step procedure for meaning making in phenomenological research, as well your WordPress.com account consciousness seriously, something science! Get behind phenomena to find the reason / reasons why there are qualitative and quantitative of. Who suffered with chronic back pain suggesting a four-step procedure for meaning making a on! 2019 ) emerge and the analyst ` s interpretation or account of this methodology is intimidating!

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